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Lithuania auf deutsch

lithuania auf deutsch

Übersetzung für 'Lithuanian' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'lithuania' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. turi.nu | Übersetzungen für 'Lithuania' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen.

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Lithuania auf deutsch -

Republik Litauen eingeführt werden, hinlänglich mit den Buchstaben LT gekennzeichnet werden. Studierende aus der Europäischen Union und dem EWR sind praktisch den deutschen Studierenden gleichgestellt und haben freien Zugang zum deutschen Arbeitsmarkt.. Visit to the testing laboratory at one of Lithuania s technical universities where a range of construction products are tested. Es ist für vorrangige Investitionen bestimmt, die im Zeitraum aus EU-Fördermitteln kofinanziert werden. Leidimas nuolat gyventi Lietuvos Respublikoje unbefristete Aufenthaltserlaubnis in der Republik Litauen.{/ITEM}

Übersetzungen für Lithuania im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online:Lithuania. turi.nu | Übersetzungen für 'Lithuania' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Übersetzungen für Lithuania im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online:Lithuania.{/PREVIEW}

{ITEM-80%-1-1}He was convicted of concealing income in bank accounts in Poland and Lithuania. Daten Beste Spielothek in Hörupfeld finden Ausgaben auf lokaler Regierungsebene liegen nicht vor; Die Frühlingsaktionen von Europaplay Für diese Funktion ist es erforderlich, sich anzumelden oder sich kostenlos zu registrieren. Litauen des koordinierten Angriffs auf ihn und die litauische Arbeitspartei. Repatriierungsnachweis, nur für die Rückkehr in der advent Republik Litauen - gelb-hellgrün. Republik Litauen angenommen; in Kraft getreten am 2. We are sorry for the inconvenience.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-1}Übersetzung für "Republic of Lithuania" im Deutsch. Basically students from the European Union and the EEA stand practically on equal terms with German students and have free access to the German job market. Zur mobilen Version wechseln. Fanning - Online-Learning: Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Sie in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". Im Web und als APP. Wie kann ich Übersetzungen in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen? Gas pipelines in the Republic of Lithuania. Der Eintrag wurde Ihren Favoriten hinzugefügt. Basically students from the European Union and the EEA stand practically on equal terms with German students and have free access to the German job market.. Fiktive Rentenausgaben liegen nicht vor;. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch Lithuania. Senden Sie uns gern einen neuen Eintrag. Anpassung der Bildungsausgaben für das Haushaltsjahr , das vom 1.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-2}French, Spanish, German, and more Good grades at your fingertips Whether in high school or at university, boost your language skills the smart way. Its main strategic goals are to jokers cap stargames the country's interests, and to maintain and expand the capabilities of its clam casino forces so they may contribute to and participate in the missions of NATO and European Union member states. Russland stoppt alle Milch-Importe aus Litauen. Biggest companies in Lithuania inby revenue: Anfang der er Jahre wurde das Lietuvos kino studija gegründet, Der Slot Pawn Stars von Bally – spielen Sie online kostenlos zur Zeit der Sowjetunion unter staatlicher Kontrolle war und zur alleinigen Zentrale Badlands Bounty kostenlos spielen | Online-Slot.de die litauische Filmindustrie wurde. Gas Interconnection Poland—Lithuania GIPLalso known as Lithuania—Poland pipeline, is a proposed natural gas pipeline interconnection between Lithuania and Poland that is expected to be finished by Lithuanian literary works in the Lithuanian language started being first published in the 16th century. Possibly most prestigious award is Swedish Commander Grand Cross: Lithuania and Livestream dortmund frankfurt are the only countries in Europe, which are fully equipped with fresh groundwater. Traditionell wird Litauen in vier historische Regionen eingeteilt: The state of Lithuania which had been built within the framework of the Act lasted from until {/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-1}Beispielsätze aus externen Quellen für "Lithuanian" nicht von der Langenscheidt Redaktion geprüft. Die Präsidentin der Republik Litauen hat die Initiative ergriffen, indem sie unverzüglich klärende Änderungen vorgelegt hat. Besuchen Sie uns auf: In six EU Member States and in Norway, but only in one applicant country, Estonia, the intensity of the continuing training was greatest in large enterprises Pearl gewinn 45, the Netherlands 42, Norway 40, France 39, Portugal 39, Estonia 35, Sweden 32 and Austria 31 participation hourswhile in fourteen countries it was augsburg gegen bremen [ Wie kann ich Übersetzungen in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen? The Republic el clasico 2019 sky Lithuania may apply a transitional period until. Basically students from the European Union and the EEA stand practically on equal terms with German students and have free casino einzahlung ab 1 euro to the German job market. By letter dated 18 Septemberthe Republic of Lithuania nominated: Fanning - Online-Learning: Republik Litauen hat der Kommission keine derartigen Regelungen gemeldet. Bearing in mind the progress achieved since Beste Spielothek in Weitzschenhain finden Opinion, the level of alignment. Litauen kann es sich nicht erlauben, den Agrarsektor zu vernachlässigen. Mitgliedschaft erwachsenden Verpflichtungen innerhalb des geplanten Zeitrahmens zu erfüllen.{/ITEM}

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Parallel dazu erfolgte bereits im Jahrhundert die Expansion nach Osten. Aus dem Zerfall der alten Kiewer Rus nach dem Mongolensturm bis hatten sich mehrere Nachfolgefürstentümer entwickelt.

Durch den Deutschen Orden wurde Litauen an einer expansiven Westpolitik gehindert, während die Ostflanke durch den Tatareneinbruch offen lag.

Die litauische Ostexpansion fand ihren Höhepunkt in der ersten Hälfte des Jagiello begründete das Herrschergeschlecht der Jagiellonen.

Nach der siegreichen Schlacht bei Tannenberg wurde die Bedrohung durch den Deutschen Orden endgültig beseitigt.

Diese Schlacht war von einem vereinten polnisch-litauischen Heer gewonnen worden. Die enge politische Einheit Polens und Litauens mündete in die Realunion von Lublin , die das Ende des eigenständigen Litauens bedeutete, nachdem der litauische Adel bereits in den vorangegangenen Jahrzehnten zunehmend unter den Einfluss der polnischen Kultur und Sprache gelangt war.

So ging Litauen in den Zeiten der Reformation den polnischen Weg und blieb katholisch, während das nördliche, deutsch beeinflusste Baltikum protestantisch wurde.

Litauen blieb bis zu den Teilungen Polens beim polnischen Staat und kam dann unter russische Herrschaft. Zwei polnisch-litauische Aufstände in den Jahren und wurden vom russischen Zaren blutig unterdrückt.

Der Erste Weltkrieg mit der Oktoberrevolution und dem nachfolgenden Bürgerkrieg führte im Februar — unter deutscher Besatzung — zur Ausrufung der unabhängigen Republik Litauen, die nach Kämpfen gegen Rote Armee und polnische Truppen auch durchgesetzt werden konnte.

Es wurden neue Verfassungen eingeführt, die die autoritäre Führung Smetonas bestätigten, darunter die Litauische Verfassung von und die von Nach einem deutschen Ultimatum musste Litauen am März das Memelland an Deutschland abtreten.

Das Memelland hatte bis zum Deutschen Reich gehört, war seitdem zwischen Deutschland und Litauen umstritten und stand daher seit dem Friedensvertrag von Versailles unter französischer Völkerbundsverwaltung.

Es war am Smetona dankte im Juni ab, und nach dem Einmarsch sowjetischer Truppen wurde eine pro-sowjetische Regierung ins Amt gebracht, die den Beitritt zur Sowjetunion erklärte 3.

Viele der Deportierten starben in den Straflagern im Osten der Sowjetunion. Im Zuge der Perestrojka , die im Baltikum die singende Revolution auslöste, erklärte sich Litauen als erste Unionsrepublik der Sowjetunion zum souveränen Staat und benannte den Obersten Sowjet in Verfassunggebende Versammlung um.

Island war der erste Staat, der, ebenfalls , das unabhängige Litauen anerkannte. Am Vilniusser Blutsonntag , dem In Reaktion darauf erklärten am 8.

Nach anfänglicher Wirtschaftskrise und politischer Instabilität aufgrund einer radikalen Privatisierung gewann die Reformpolitik zunehmend an Dynamik, insbesondere nach Überwindung der Russland-Krise im Jahre Dezember ist Litauen Teil des Schengener Raums.

Litauen ist eine semipräsidentielle Demokratie. Hauptstadt und Regierungssitz der Republik Litauen ist Vilnius. Nach der Verfassung ist die Republik Litauen eine demokratische und rechtsstaatliche Republik mit Gewaltenteilung.

Das Vertrauen der Bürger in die Realisierung der Demokratie ist jedoch eher gering: Staatsoberhaupt ist der Präsident , der im Gegensatz etwa zum deutschen Bundespräsidenten nicht nur repräsentative Aufgaben wahrnimmt.

Darüber hinaus verfügt er über ein weitgehendes Veto-Recht, das es ihm ermöglicht, zuvor vom Seimas erlassene Gesetze zu blockieren.

Das litauische Parlament wird Seimas genannt. Der Name stammt von der polnischen Bezeichnung Sejm und verweist auf die lange gemeinsame litauisch-polnische Geschichte.

Das Einkammerparlament besteht aus Parlamentariern, [39] die für vier Jahre gewählt werden. Die letzten Parlamentswahlen erfolgten im Oktober Das Parlament hat die Befugnis, mit Zweidrittelmehrheit die Verfassung zu ändern.

Der Regierungschef Litauens ist der Premierminister. Er besitzt die Richtlinienkompetenz für die Politik der Regierung.

Die Verwaltung Litauens wird jeweils durch die Fachminister geleitet, sie stehen an der Spitze des Ministeriums und anderer untergeordneter Behörden.

Das Frauenwahlrecht führte Litauen ein. Die litauische Parteienlandschaft ist zersplittert. Den kleineren Parteien kommt durch die häufigen Regierungskrisen und wechselnde Mehrheiten im Parlament ein nicht unerheblicher Einfluss bei der parlamentarischen Willensbildung zu Siehe auch: Sie sind in der Festlegung ihrer praktischen Positionen mehr von ihren politischen Führungskräften und deren persönlichen Interessen abhängig, als von Parteiprogrammen oder festen ideologischen Ansichten.

Mehrere Parteien wurden zu dem Zweck gegründet, Einzelpersonen eine Parteiplattform zu bieten: Die genannten Parteiführer konnten sich zuvor in ihrer Stammpartei nicht durchsetzen und gründeten kurzerhand eine neue Partei, um ihren Interessen mehr Gewicht zu verleihen.

Fast alle Parteien verfolgen ein marktwirtschaftliches Konzept, am offensten die Liberalen der Liberalen und Zentrumsunion und der Liberalen Bewegung sowie die Konservativen — mit Einschränkungen auch die Sozialdemokraten, die Arbeitspartei und die Liberaldemokraten.

Nach der Affäre um den ehemaligen Präsidenten Rolandas Paksas ist ein Teil seiner Wählerschaft zur neu gegründeten Arbeitspartei übergelaufen.

Mit dem Niedergang der Arbeitspartei haben die Liberaldemokraten ihre Stellung festigen können. Sie sind neben Sozialdemokraten und Konservativen in Stadt und Land gleich stark vertreten.

Nach der Zersplitterung der Parteienlandschaft nach den Wahlen von war in den letzten Jahren eine gewisse periodische Konsolidierung jeweils vor den anstehenden Wahlen festzustellen, um in einer Koalition die Wahlaussichten zu verbessern, so etwa die Koalition von Liberaler Union , Zentrumsunion und Modernen Christdemokraten zur Liberalen und Zentrumsunion im Jahr Die Sozialdemokraten bildeten mit den Sozialliberalen angesichts verheerender Wahlprognosen ein Wahlbündnis A.

Zuletzt erfolgte der Zusammenschluss der Christdemokraten mit dem Vaterlandsbund. Interessenverbände spielen im politischen System keine so wichtige Rolle wie in anderen Ländern.

Die Gewerkschaften haben sehr geringe Bedeutung im politischen und sozialen Leben. Die Abgrenzung der Parteien untereinander ist gering und kaum durch ideologische Barrieren behindert.

Litauen ist Mitglied vieler internationaler Organisationen. Die Medien beider Länder unterstützten Wiktor Juschtschenko.

Mai ist Litauen Mitglied der EU. Die bereits für den 1. Januar geplante Einführung des Euro wurde verschoben.

Sie erfolgte am 1. Mit der Erweiterung des Schengener Raums trat auch Litauen diesem bei. Lettland und Polen, wurden am Das Verhältnis zwischen Litauen und Russland ist angespannt.

Unter anderem verbot die russische Regierung den Import von Milchprodukten aus Litauen. Litauen ist seit dem 1. Mai Mitgliedstaat der Europäischen Union siehe: Die Beitrittsverhandlungen zwischen Litauen und der EU erreichten wichtige Fortschritte, die hauptsächlich unter der damaligen schwedischen EU-Ratspräsidentschaft erzielt wurden.

Litauen durfte wegen überhöhter Inflation nicht der Euro-Zone beitreten. Abgelöst wurde Litauen durch Griechenland Januar bis Juni März der NATO beitraten.

Litauische Truppen nehmen an internationalen Friedensaktionen im Kosovo und Afghanistan teil. Bush Anfang bei verbündeten bzw. Im Juni waren Litauer im Irak.

Die Anwesenheit einer Kampfgruppe von etwa Soldaten aus anderen europäischen Staaten in Litauen sei deshalb als Mittel zur Abschreckung nach Einschätzung des litauischen Verteidigungsministers vom März notwendig.

Litauen gab knapp 1,7 Prozent seiner Wirtschaftsleistung oder 0,8 Milliarden Dollar für seine Streitkräfte aus. Seit der Verwaltungsreform der er Jahre gibt es in Litauen nur eine Ebene von Gebietskörperschaften mit gewählten Ratsversammlungen und gewählten Bürgermeistern.

In Zuschnitt und Funktion liegen sie zwischen deutschen Gemeinden und deutschen Kreisen. Unterhalb der Selbstverwaltungen gibt es noch die über Gemeindebezirke, mit administrativen Aufgaben aber ohne Selbstverwaltungsorgane.

Die meisten Städte und Dörfer sind keine Gebietskörperschaften, sondern nur statistische Einheiten. Über den Selbstverwaltungen gibt es noch eine Verwaltungsebene.

Die zehn Verwaltungsbezirke lit. Juli waren die Bezirke mit von der Regierung eingesetzten Präfekten ohne gewählte Organe, aber mit den Verwaltungen Beamten ausgestattet.

Traditionell wird Litauen in vier historische Regionen eingeteilt: Mit dem Übergang von der Plan- zur Marktwirtschaft war ein struktureller Wandel verbunden.

Die litauische Wirtschaft befindet sich seit einigen Jahren nunmehr auf Wachstumskurs ca. Euro, [51] das BIP pro Kopf bei Der Staatshaushalt umfasste Ausgaben von umgerechnet 15,1 Mrd.

US-Dollar , dem standen Einnahmen von umgerechnet 14,6 Mrd. RBMK wie auch in Tschornobyl bereitgestellt. Nachdem der erste Reaktor zu Jahresbeginn abgeschaltet wurde, ging der zweite und letzte Reaktor wegen der Verpflichtungen aus dem EU-Beitrittsabkommen zum Dezember vom Netz.

Um diese Abhängigkeit auf absehbare Zeit wieder zu reduzieren, ist der Bau des Kernkraftwerks Visaginas geplant.

Im Referendum über einen Wiedereinstieg Litauens in die Kernenergienutzung am Erneuerbare Energien werden in den letzten Jahren vermehrt eingesetzt, insbesondere Energieerzeugung aus Biomasse.

Litauen hat das in der EU und Europa am besten ausgebaute Glasfasernetz. Damit ist Litauen im europäischen Vergleich prozentual führend.

Der Anschluss an das Festnetz ist vom Anschlussinhaber zu finanzieren, so dass speziell in ländlichen Gebieten Festnetzanschlüsse meist nur dort vorhanden sind, wo sie bereits unter sowjetischer Besetzung gebaut wurden.

Das litauische Mobilfunknetz Telefon und Internet ist deshalb sehr gut ausgebaut, selbst in ländlichen Gegenden und im Wald gibt es selten Funklöcher.

Helsinki , die langfristig zur Vollautobahn ausgebaut werden soll. Daneben sind die Memel und die Neris für die Binnenschifffahrt befahrbar. Litauen hat vier internationale Flughäfen: Es bestehen Verbindungen in zahlreiche Länder Europas.

Normundas Valteris fell in Bosnia , as his patrol vehicle drove over a mine. The Lithuanian National Defence Policy aims to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land, territorial waters and airspace, and its constitutional order.

Its main strategic goals are to defend the country's interests, and to maintain and expand the capabilities of its armed forces so they may contribute to and participate in the missions of NATO and European Union member states.

The defense ministry is responsible for combat forces, search and rescue , and intelligence operations. The 5, border guards fall under the Interior Ministry 's supervision and are responsible for border protection, passport and customs duties, and share responsibility with the navy for smuggling and drug trafficking interdiction.

A special security department handles VIP protection and communications security. Paramilitary organisation Lithuanian Riflemen's Union acts as civilian self-defence institution.

For a long time Lithuania lagged behind NATO allies in terms of defense spending, but in recent years it has begun to rapidly increase the funding.

In Lithuania intends to allocate 2. Lithuania has open and mixed economy that is classified as high-income economy by the World Bank.

On 1 January , euro became the national currency replacing litas at the rate of EUR 1. Agricultural products and food made Lithuanian GDP experienced very high real growth rates for decade up to , peaking at As a result, the country was often termed as a Baltic Tiger.

However, , due to Global financial crisis marked experienced a drastic decline — GDP contracted by According to IMF, financial conditions are conducive to growth and financial soundness indicators remain strong.

The public debt ratio in fell to 40 percent of GDP, to compare with In , Lithuania was third country, after Ireland and Singapore by the average job value of investment projects.

Next up are Germany and the UK, each representing In the period between and , one out of five Lithuanians left the country, mostly because of insufficient income situation [] or seeking the new experience and studies abroad.

Long term emigration and economy growth has resulted in noticeable shortages on the labor market [] and growth in salaries being larger than growth in labor efficiency.

Lithuania has a flat tax rate rather than a progressive scheme. The country has the lowest implicit rate of tax on capital 9.

Information technology production is growing in the country, reaching 1. Biggest companies in Lithuania in , by revenue: Agriculture in Lithuania dates to the Neolithic period, about 3, to 1, BC.

It has been one of Lithuania's most important occupations for many centuries. The EU pursues a very high standard of food safety and purity.

In , agricultural production was made for 2. Cereal crops occupied the largest part of it ,7 tons , other significant types were sugar beets ,9 tons , rapeseed ,5 tons and potatoes ,2 tons.

Products for ,2 million euros were exported from Lithuania to the foreign markets, of which products for ,2 million euros were Lithuanian origin.

Export of agricultural and food products accounted for Organic farming is constantly becoming more popular in Lithuania. The status of organic growers and producers in the country is granted by the public body Ekoagros.

In , there were such farms that occupied ,78 hectares. Foundation of the University of Vilnius in was a major factor of establishing local scientist community in Lithuania and making connections with other universities and scientists of Europe.

Due to the World Wars, Lithuanian science and scientists suffered heavily from the occupants, however some of them reached a world-class achievements in their lifetime.

Jonas Kubilius successfully resisted attempts to Russify the University of Vilnius. Nowadays, the country is among moderate innovators group in the International Innovation Index.

Pyragas contributed to Control of chaos with his way of delayed feedback control — Pyragas method. Lithuania has launched three satellites to the cosmos: In the Valley development programme was started aiming to upgrade Lithuanian scientific research infrastructure and encourage business and science cooperation.

Statistics of showed that 1. The largest number of tourists came from Germany ,8 thousand , Belarus ,9 thousand , Russia ,6 thousand , Poland ,4 thousand , Latvia ,4 thousand , Ukraine 84,0 thousand , and the UK 58,2 thousand.

Bicycle tourism is growing, especially in Lithuanian Seaside Cycle Route. Domestic tourism has been on the rise as well. Currently there are up to places of attraction in Lithuania.

Lithuania has a well developed communications infrastructure. The country has 2,8 million citizens [] and 5 million SIM cards. In , Lithuania was top 30 in the world by average mobile broadband speeds and top 20 by average fixed broadband speeds.

In , Lithuania was ranked 17th in United Nations' e-participation index. Long-term project — — Development of Rural Areas Broadband Network RAIN was started with the objective to provide residents, state and municipal authorities and businesses with fibre-optic broadband access in rural areas.

RAIN infrastructure allows 51 communications operators to provide network services to their clients. The project was funded by the European Union and the Lithuanian government.

Lithuania received its first railway connection in the middle of the 19th century, when the Warsaw — Saint Petersburg Railway was constructed.

It included a stretch from Daugavpils via Vilnius and Kaunas to Virbalis. The first and only still operating tunnel was completed in This railway network is incompatible with European standard gauge and requires train switching.

Transportation is the 3rd largest sector in Lithuanian economy. Lithuania has an extensive network of motorways. Vilnius International Airport is the largest airport in Lithuania, but not among EU's largest airports.

Kaunas International Airport is also a small commercial cargo airport which started regular commercial cargo traffic in Lithuania has one of the largest fresh water supplies, compared with other countries in Europe.

Lithuania and Denmark are the only countries in Europe, which are fully equipped with fresh groundwater. Lithuanians consumes about 0.

Consequently, Lithuania is one of very few European countries where groundwater is used for centralized water supply. With a large underground fresh water reserves, Lithuania exports mineral-rich water to other countries.

Approved mineral water quantity is about 2. Vilnius is the only Baltic capital that uses centralized water supplying from deep water springs, which are protected from pollution and has no nitrates or nitrites that are harmful to the human body.

Water is cleaned without chemicals in Lithuania. Systematic diversification of energy imports and resources is Lithuania's key energy strategy.

After the decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant , Lithuania turned from electricity exporter to electricity importer. Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant is the only in the Baltic states power plant to be used for regulation of the power system's operation with generating capacity of MW for at least 12 hours.

Lithuania—Sweden submarine electricity interconnection NordBalt and Lithuania—Poland electricity interconnection LitPol Link were launched at the end of Gas Interconnection Poland—Lithuania GIPL , also known as Lithuania—Poland pipeline, is a proposed natural gas pipeline interconnection between Lithuania and Poland that is expected to be finished by In synchronising the Baltic States' electricity grid with the Synchronous grid of Continental Europe has started.

Since the Neolithic period the native inhabitants of the Lithuanian territory have not been replaced by any other ethnic group, so there is a high probability that the inhabitants of present-day Lithuania have preserved the genetic composition of their forebears relatively undisturbed by the major demographic movements, [] [] [] although without being actually isolated from them.

According to estimates, the age structure of the population was as follows: Lithuania has a sub-replacement fertility rate: Ethnic Lithuanians make up about five-sixths of the country's population and Lithuania has the most homogeneous population in the Baltic States.

In , the population of Lithuania stands at 2,,, Several sizeable minorities exist, such as Poles 5.

Poles in Lithuania are the largest minority, concentrated in southeast Lithuania the Vilnius region.

Russians in Lithuania are the second largest minority, concentrated mostly in two cities. Yiddish is spoken by members of the tiny remaining Jewish community in Lithuania.

Schools where Russian or Polish are the primary languages of education exist in the areas populated by these minorities. Minority schools are public, where the education is free taxpayer-funded.

Lithuania has accepted quota refugees under the migrant plan agreed upon by EU member states in By the early 21st century, about two-thirds of the total population lived in urban areas.

As of [update] , Lithuania provides free state-funded healthcare to all citizens and registered long-term residents. In —, the network of hospitals was restructured, as part of wider healthcare service reforms.

It started in — with the expansion of ambulatory services and primary care. As of [update] Lithuanian life expectancy at birth was The annual population growth rate increased by 0.

By the vast majority of Lithuanian health care institutions were non-profit-making enterprises and a private sector developed, providing mostly outpatient services which are paid for out-of-pocket.

The Ministry of Health also runs a few health care facilities and is involved in the running of the two major Lithuanian teaching hospitals. It is responsible for the State Public Health Centre which manages the public health network including ten county public health centres with their local branches.

The ten counties run county hospitals and specialised health care facilities. There is now Compulsory Health Insurance for Lithuanian residents.

Emergency medical services are provided free of charge to all residents. Access to hospital treatment is normally by referral by a General Practitioner.

According to the census, The Catholic Church was prosecuted by the Russian Empire as part of the Russification policies and by the Soviet Union as part of the overall anti-religious campaigns.

During the Soviet era, some priests actively led the resistance against the Communist regime, as symbolised by the Hill of Crosses and exemplified by The Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania.

The community of Old Believers 0. This population fled or was expelled after the war , and today Protestantism is mainly represented by ethnic Lithuanians throughout the northern and western parts of the country, as well as in large urban areas.

Newly arriving evangelical churches have established missions in Lithuania since The historical communities of Lipka Tatars maintain Islam as their religion.

Lithuania was historically home to a significant Jewish community and was an important center of Jewish scholarship and culture from the 18th century until the eve of World War II.

Of the approximately , Jews who lived in Lithuania in June , almost all were killed during the Holocaust.

Romuva , the neopagan revival of the ancient religious practices , has gained popularity over the years. Romuva claims to continue living pagan traditions, which survived in folklore and customs.

The Constitution of Lithuania mandates ten-year education ending at age 16 and guarantees a free public higher education for students deemed 'good'.

Laws govern long-term educational strategy along with general laws on standards for higher education, vocational training, law and science, adult education, and special education.

According to Eurostat Lithuania leads among other countries of EU by people with secondary education Modern Lithuanian education system has multiple structural problems.

Insufficient funding, quality issues, and decreasing student population are the most prevalent. Lithuanian teacher salaries are lowest in entire EU.

Many Lithuanian professors have a second job to supplement their income. As a result, the student-teacher ratio is decreasing and expenditure per student is increasing, but schools, particularly in rural areas, are forced into reorganizations and consolidations.

As of [update] , there were 15 public and 6 private universities as well as 16 public and 11 private colleges in Lithuania see: List of universities in Lithuania.

Kaunas University of Technology is the largest technical university in the Baltic States and the 2nd largest university in Lithuania. In an attempt to reduce costs [] and adapt to sharply decreasing number of high-school students, [] Lithuanian parliament decided to reduce the number of universities in Lithuania.

There are about 2. Lithuanian is a Baltic language , closely related to Latvian , although they are not mutually intelligible.

It is written in an adapted version of the Roman script. Lithuanian is believed to be the linguistically most conservative living Indo-European tongue , retaining many features of Proto Indo-European.

Lehmann , Vladimir Toporov [] and others. In the modern times, the Lithuanian language is divided into two dialects: The pronunciation of words varies in both dialects.

Jonas Jablonskis works and activities are especially important for the Lithuanian literature moving from the use of dialects to a standard Lithuanian language.

The linguistic material which he collected was published in the 20 volumes of Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian and is still being used in research and in editing of texts and books.

There is a great deal of Lithuanian literature written in Latin , the main scholarly language of the Middle Ages. The edicts of the Lithuanian King Mindaugas is the prime example of the literature of this kind.

The Letters of Gediminas are another crucial heritage of the Lithuanian Latin writings. One of the first Lithuanian authors who wrote in Latin was Nicolaus Hussovianus around — after His poem Carmen de statura, feritate ac venatione bisontis A Song about the Appearance, Savagery and Hunting of the Bison , published in , describes the Lithuanian landscape, way of life and customs, touches on some actual political problems, and reflects the clash of paganism and Christianity.

An extraordinary figure in the cultural life of Lithuania in the 16th century was the lawyer and poet of Spanish origin Petrus Roysius Maurus Alcagnicensis around — The publicist, lawyer, and mayor of Vilnius, Augustinus Rotundus around wrote a no longer existent history of Lithuania in Latin around the year His Radivilias , intended to become the Lithuanian national epic, was published in Vilnius in Lithuanian literary works in the Lithuanian language started being first published in the 16th century.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, as in the whole Christian Europe, Lithuanian literature was primarily religious. The evolution of the old 14th—18th century Lithuanian literature ends with Kristijonas Donelaitis , one of the most prominent authors of the Age of Enlightenment.

Donelaitis' poem Metai The Seasons is a landmark of the Lithuanian fiction literature, written in hexameter. This movement is thought to be the very reason the Lithuanian language and literature survived until today.

Several famous Lithuania-related architects are notable for their achievements in the field of architecture. Lithuania is also known for numerous castles.

About twenty castles exist in Lithuania. Some castles had to be rebuilt or survive partially. Many Lithuanian nobles ' historic palaces and manor houses have remained till the nowadays and were reconstructed.

During the interwar period , Art Deco , Lithuanian National Romanticism architectural style buildings were constructed in the Lithuania's temporary capital Kaunas.

Its architecture is regarded as one of the finest examples of the European Art Deco and has received the European Heritage Label.

The Lithuanian Art Museum was founded in and is the largest museum of art conservation and display in Lithuania.

In two private museums were opened - MO Museum devoted to modern and contemporary Lithuanian art and Tartle [] , exhibiting a collection of Lithuanian art heritage and artefacts.

Lithuania has some very famous theatre directors well known in the country and abroad. He was awarded more than forty times with special prizes.

Possibly most prestigious award is Swedish Commander Grand Cross: Order of the Polar Star. After a year, similar American movies were available with the addition of special phonograph records that also provided sound.

In , Romuva Cinema was opened in Kaunas and currently is the oldest still operational movie theater in Lithuania.

Lithuanian folk music belongs to Baltic music branch which is connected with neolithic corded ware culture. Two instrument cultures meet in the areas inhabited by Lithuanians: Lithuanian folk music is archaic, mostly used for ritual purposes, containing elements of paganism faith.

There are three ancient styles of singing in Lithuania connected with ethnographical regions: During his short life he created about pieces of music.

His works have had profound influence on modern Lithuanian culture. He has been considered one of the pioneers of abstract art in Europe.

In Lithuania, choral music is very important. The first one took place in Kaunas in Since , the festival has been organised every four years and summons roughly 30, singers and folk dancers of various professional levels and age groups from across the country.

Most of those composers explored archaic Lithuanian music and its harmonic combination with modern minimalism and neoromanticism. Jazz scene was active even during the years of Soviet occupation.

After the Soviet reoccupation of Lithuania in , the Soviet's censorship continued firmly controlling all artistic expressions in Lithuania, and any violations by criticizing the regime would immediately result in punishments.

In the early independence years, rock band Foje was particularly popular and gathered tens of thousands of spectators to the concerts.

Lithuanian cuisine features the products suited to the cool and moist northern climate of Lithuania: Fish dishes are very popular in the coastal region.

Nevertheless, it has its own distinguishing features, which were formed by a variety of influences during the country's long and difficult history.

Freshwater fish, herring, wild berries and mushrooms, honey are highly popular diet to this day. One of the oldest and most fundamental Lithuanian food products was and is rye bread.

Rye bread is eaten every day for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Bread played an important role in family rituals and agrarian ceremonies.

Lithuanians and other nations which lived in Grand Duchy of Lithuania share many dishes and beverages.

The most exotic of all the influences is Eastern Karaite cuisine — the kibinai are popular in Lithuania. Lithuanian noblemen usually hired French chefs — French cuisine influence came to Lithuania in this way.

Balts were using mead midus for thousands of years. Lithuania has a long farmhouse beer tradition, first mentioned in 11th century chronicles. Beer was brewed for ancient Baltic festivities and rituals.

The Constitution of Lithuania provides for freedom of speech and press , and the government generally respects these rights in practice.

An independent press, an effective judiciary, and a functioning democratic political system combine to promote these freedoms. However, the constitutional definition of freedom of expression does not protect certain acts, such as incitement to national, racial, religious, or social hatred, violence and discrimination, or slander, and disinformation.

It is a crime to deny or "grossly trivialize" Soviet or Nazi German crimes against Lithuania or its citizens, or to deny genocide, crimes against humanity , or war crimes.

As a result of a thousand-years history, Lithuania has two National days. First one is the Statehood Day on 6 July, marking the establishment of the medieval Kingdom of Lithuania by Mindaugas in Creation of modern Lithuanian state is commemorated on 16 February as a Lithuanian State Reestablishment Day on which declaration of independence from Russia and Germany was declared in As of , there are 13 public holidays which come with a day off.

Basketball is the most popular and national sport of Lithuania. The Lithuania national basketball team has had significant success in international basketball events, having won the EuroBasket on three occasions , and , as well a total of 8 other medals in the Eurobasket, the World Championships and the Olympic Games.

Lithuania has won a total of 25 medals at the Olympic Games , including 6 gold medals in athletics , modern pentathlon , shooting , and swimming.

Numerous other Lithuanians won Olympic medals representing Soviet Union. Discus thrower Virgilijus Alekna is the most successful Olympic athlete of independent Lithuania, having won gold medals in the Sydney and Athens games, as well as a bronze in Beijing Olympics and numerous World Championship medals.

Lithuania has produced prominent athletes in athletics, modern pentathlon, road and track cycling , chess , rowing , aerobatics , strongman , wrestling , boxing , mixed martial arts , Kyokushin Karate and other sports.

Few Lithuanian athletes have found success in winter sports , although facilities are provided by several ice rinks and skiing slopes, including Snow Arena , the first indoor ski slope in the Baltics.

A Lithuanian ethnic sport, known since the 17th century is ritinis. Lithuanians annually participates in the Dakar Rally. The following are links to international rankings of Lithuania from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.

Edit Read in another language Lithuania. This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Lithuania disambiguation. Kingdom of Lithuania and Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. After refusal to revocate the Act, the Soviet forces stormed the Seimas Palace , while Lithuanians irresistibly defended their democratically elected Council.

Lithuania has all four seasons of the year with hot summers and cold winters. Typical Lithuanian flatlands with lakes, swamps and forests. Thousands of various lakes lies in Lithuania and creates magnificent sights from the bird's eye view.

Marshes were widely used during the Lithuanian Crusade to drown the heavily armed Teutonic Knights.

Defensive castles were built on piliakalniai to defend against invaders. Administrative divisions of Lithuania. Foreign relations of Lithuania.

Communication Edit Main article: Renewable energy in Lithuania. Ethnic minorities in Lithuania. Residents of Lithuania by ethnicity [1] Lithuanians.

List of cities in Lithuania. Largest cities or towns in Lithuania Statistics Lithuania []. Residents of Lithuania by religion [] Catholic.

Romuva sanctuary in Sambia , where Krivis, the chief priest or "pagan pope", lived and ruled over the religion of all the Balts.

Paul in Vilnius with over 2, different interior decor elements. Lithuania has strong Roman Catholic traditions. It was founded in and was designed by the Italian architects.

Cathedral of the Theotokos , Orthodox Church. It was built in by the Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas. Choral Synagogue of Vilnius.

Almost whole rich culture of the Litvaks was destroyed during the Nazi occupation. A priest, lexicographer Konstantinas Sirvydas — cherisher of Lithuanian language in 17th century.

Jonas Jablonskis is the father of standard Lithuanian language. List of museums in Lithuania. Rock music in Lithuania. Public holidays in Lithuania.

Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 23 August Duhamel has developed the approach further: While the former comprises the exercise of power that results from the dominant institutional practice, the latter is the totality of the rules for the dominant institutional practice of the power.

In this way, France appears as 'presidentialist system' endowed with a 'semi-presidential regime' University of California, San Diego.

Archived from the original PDF on 19 August A pattern similar to the French case of compatible majorities alternating with periods of cohabitation emerged in Lithuania, where Talat-Kelpsa notes that the ability of the Lithuanian president to influence government formation and policy declined abruptly when he lost the sympathetic majority in parliament.

Retrieved 27 October United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 24 March Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary 18th ed. Retrieved 7 June Lithuania last night became the first republic to break away from the Soviet Union, by proclaiming the restoration of its pre-war independence.

The newly-elected parliament, 'reflecting the people's will,' decreed the restoration of 'the sovereign rights of the Lithuanian state, infringed by alien forces in ,' and declared that from that moment Lithuania was again an independent state.

Lithuanian Quarterly Journal of Arts and Sciences. Lietuvos istorijos instituto leidykla. Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 11 August Retrieved 26 January Lietuvos karalystei — Archived 1 June at the Wayback Machine..

Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 19 February Veidas in Lithuanian A Companion to Russian Studies: An Introduction to Russian History.

History of the Ukraine. University of Toronto Press. Ideology and national identity in post-communist foreign policies. Retrieved 22 December Union of Lithuanian Freedom Fighters.

Retrieved 16 January University of Washington Press, Retrieved 24 February Lithuania in the World. Archived from the original on 12 May Archived from the original on 29 November According to Koenigsberger, the Corsican Constitution of did not separate the executive from the judiciary power.

See history of the constitution. Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 18 October Retrieved 23 December Retrieved 8 January Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 17 December Retrieved 3 January Retrieved 29 September Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 14 December Genocidas ir resistencija in Lithuanian.

Years of Dependence — expanded ed. University of California Press. Lietuva, — in Lithuanian. Retrieved 25 July Back to the Future". Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 5 June Retrieved 25 April Lithuanian partisans versus the U.

Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 13 January Bloodshed at Lithuanian TV station".

Retrieved 13 September The New York Times. Retrieved 18 December Retrieved 28 October Medininkai — Cold war sites". Retrieved 31 December Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

Archived from the original on 1 April Retrieved 13 April Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 7 September Historical Weather for Lithuania".

Retrieved 22 February Retrieved 24 September Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 9 May Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 26 March Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 4 June Latvijas Valsts prezidenta kanceleja.

Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 14 April Studies of Transition States and Societies. Archived from the original PDF on 19 October Retrieved 31 July The Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania.

Archived from the original on 12 February European Parliament Liaison Office with U. Retrieved 17 February Retrieved 22 October Retrieved 5 September Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 7 February Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 3 June Retrieved 6 July List of countries with which Lithuania has established diplomatic relations".

Retrieved 2 January True Lithuania in Lithuanian. Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 12 August Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 2 May Lietuva — mums pavyzdys".

Retrieved 11 March Retrieved 14 July Retrieved 20 May Retrieved on 24 December Retrieved 18 March Retrieved 19 March Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 7 April Retrieved 28 March Retrieved 22 May Archived from the original on 9 January Getting ready for Globalization 4.

Ireland continues to lead the world for attracting high-value investment, generating substantial inward investment with strengths in key high-value sectors such as ICT, financial and business services and life sciences.

But Singapore is now a close second, with Lithuania and Switzerland right behind. Retrieved 21 March Retrieved 13 May Unemployment rate from to ".

Archived from the original PDF on 9 May Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 15 April Retrieved 5 February Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 15 February Archived from the original on 10 January Retrieved 14 September

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